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The pigmentation of the buccal membrane often differs from that of the adjacent oral surfaces of the arms diabetes mellitus type 2 cellular level cheap avapro 300mg amex. Buccal suckers Small but normal suckers on the oral surface of the buccal supports in some decapodiforms diabetes mellitus type 2 guidelines ada discount 150 mg avapro fast delivery. Buccal support (= Buccal lappet) One of 6 to diabetes mellitus definition webmd purchase discount avapro on line 8, large muscular flaps on the buccal crown that surround the mouth. The buccal supports are thought to be homologous with the inner ring of tentacles that surround the mouth of Nautilus. Caecum Region of the digestive tract of all cephalopods between the stomach and intestine. Calamus the conical papilla at the base of the ligula in the hectocotylus in many incirrate octopods. It is located at the distal termination of the sperm groove and usually lies adjacent to the last arm sucker. Carpal knobs Small, rounded, hemispherical, muscular protuberances on the carpus to which carpal suckers from the opposite club adhere during the locking of the clubs. Carpal-locking apparatus (= Carpal-fixing apparatus) Arrangement of suckers and matching knobs on the carpal region of the tentacle club that permits the 2 clubs to be locked together. Carpal suckers Small suckers on the carpus of the club that adhere to the carpal knobs on the opposite carpus during the locking of the clubs. Area at the base of tentacular club in some families where small suckers and knobs are located. Cartilaginous structures (= Cartilaginous scales and/or Cartilaginous tubercles) Rigid cartilage-like structures with 1 to several cusps, in the skin of certain oegopsid squids and a few octopods. They may be overlapping and scale-like, or multifaceted platelets, knobs or papillae in certain oegopsid squid families. Cement body Structure within spermatophores that draws the sperm cord into a bulb during spermatophore eversion. Cephalic cartilage Cartilage-like tissue that envelop the posterior part of the brain of cephalopods and encompasses the statocysts. Chitin A horny polysaccharide substance (fingernail-like) that forms the sucker rings, hooks and beaks of cephalopods. In cephalopods each chromatophore comprises an elastic sac containing pigment granules that is surrounded by many radial muscles. Under nervous control, the muscles rapidly expand and flatten the pigment sac which spreads the pigment over a relatively broad area. Cirri Elongate, fleshy, finger-like papillae occurring along the lateral edges of the sucker row in cirrate octopods and vampires. Terms formerly used with reference to erected papilae on the skin of incirrate octopods, usually over the eyes. Cephalopods have 2 coeloms, the viscero-pericardial coelom and the nephridial coelom. Collar Muscular structure extending from the nuchal cartilage to the funnel that forms a one-way valve that lets water enter the mantle cavity but closes as the mantle contracts thereby forcing exhalent water out through the funnel. Cone Term used to refer to the hollow end of the inner structures in cuttlebones and gladius or pen. Conus (= primary conus) - the cup or cone-shaped posterior end of the gladius of some cephalopods. Conus field the sides of the conus that continue along the vanes of the gladius. Cornea Smooth, thin, turgid, transparent skin without muscles that covers the eyes to protect the eye lenses of incirrate octopods and some decapodiforms (sepioids and myosid squids). Counterillumination the production of bioluminescent light by an animal to conceal its silhouette against the downwelling light. The calcareous (chalky) oblong supporting protective and buoyancy shield in the dorsal part of the mantle of cuttlefishes. Dactylus the distal section of the tentacular club of most decapodiforms, often characterized by suckers of reduced size. Diel vertical migration Vertical migration of animals in response to changes in downwelling light.
Many crab species show a sexual dimorphism diabetes insipidus fluid and electrolyte imbalance avapro 150mg lowest price, with the males usually being larger or possessing special or excessively developed structures diabetic diet oranges cheap avapro 150 mg line. Males possess 2 pairs of gonopods diabetic diet no nos order genuine avapro on-line, that is, modified pleopods specifically adapted for copulation (most crabs practice internal fertilization). The pleopods (abdominal appendages) of females are branched, setose and serve to carry the eggs: fertilized eggs are exuded, attached to the setose pleopods of females, and kept there for several weeks until the planktonic larvae (zoeae) hatch out. Many species of crabs possess pubescence to varying degrees on their body and appendages. The hair (or more appropriately called setae) may be soft or stiff, simple or plumose (plume-like), or so short that it becomes pile-like, sometimes even short and dense, giving a velvet-like appearance. The setae may sometimes be hard and spine-like, especially on the propodus and dactylus of legs. Majids often possess hook-like setae that attach to sponges, algae and debris (similar in action to velcro), supporting the camouflage of the crab. Carapace types (after Ng, 1998) the shape of the carapace is often used as a descriptive character in many guides and keys. Unfortunately, a large variety of terms have been introduced in the past, not always applied with exactly the same meaning. Therefore, an approximate categorization has been provided here and those carapace types which belong to a respective category are illustrated below. It should be remembered, however, that there are sometimes no clear lines separating the different carapace types, and so the designation of a particular type may be somewhat subjective in certain cases. Nevertheless, the use of carapace shapes is still a useful character in many instances. Last (fourth) pair of legs slender, reduced, inserted obliquely on carapace and directed upwards; dactylus and propodus together forming a distinct subchela. Merus of third maxillipeds distinctly triangular; opening for afferent respiratory current at base of chela, no canal present along sides of buccal cavern even when third maxillipeds pushed aside. Last pair of legs with distal 2 segments wider and more flattened than these segments of previous legs, in most species the dactylus is oval and paddle-shaped, adapted for swimming purposes, none of the segments dactyli with conspicuous spines. Second gonopod in males longer than first; distal part of second gonopod developed into filiform flagellum. Basal segment of eyestalk much longer than terminal article, from dorsal view, eyestalk appear to be 2-segmented (Figs 2a and 3) 2b. Basal segment of eyestalk much shorter than terminal article, from dorsal view, eyestalk appears to be unsegmented. Fourth (last) pair of walking legs normal in structure or reduced in size but not subchelate of chelate. Merus of third maxilliped quadrate to subquadrate, never clearly triangular in shape. Eyes pigmented, eyestalks wi t h o u t s p i n e s; f r o n t wi t h median incision. Carapace pyriform (pear-shaped) (Figs 9 and 10); orbits incomplete; carapace, chelipeds and legs often with hooked setae; vulvae of adult female on thoracic sternum. Carapace shape not as above; orbits usually complete; carapace, chelipeds and legs without hooked setae; vulvae of adult female on coxae of third legs. Carapace longitudinally rectangular, dorsal surface glabrous or with scattered stiff setae; only fourth pair of walking legs with dactylus and propodus subchelate to chelate. Carapace longitudinally ovate, circular or hexagonal, dorsal surface usually with dense, soft setae; both third and fourth walking legs with dactylus and propodus subchelate to chelate; carries sponges and sea anemones when alive. Carapace circular to hexagonal; a small platelet-like structure usually intercalated between edges of sixth abdominal segment and telson. Carapace longitudinally ovate; no platelet-like structure intercalated between edges of sixth abdominal segment and telson. Merus of third maxilliped quadrate to ovoid, never distinclty triangular in shape. Carapace longitudinally ovate; sternum very narrow, thoracic sternites 5 to 7 very narrow.
Sensory symptoms can include both loss of sensations and disordered sensations with tingling diabetes symptoms 236 avapro 300mg without prescription, numbness and a heightened sense of pain metabolic disease hepatitis purchase generic avapro canada. Autonomic involvement can result in abnormal control of blood pressure and heart rate diabetes prevention coordinator job description buy cheap avapro 300 mg on-line, decreased ability to sweat, constipation or diarrhea, incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Included in this group are: Myasthenia Gravis: an auto-immune disease resulting most commonly from antibodies to acetylcholine receptors. Symptoms of myasthenia gravis include muscle fatigue during periods of activity with improvement after periods of rest. The majority of patients with myasthenia gravis also have thymus abnormalities and thymectomy can improve symptoms in some patients. Administration of the short-acting drug, edrophonium, that blocks acetylcholinesterase activity in the neuromuscular junctions, will provide a temporary improvement in muscle activity. Botulism: a paralytic illness caused by the botulinum toxin, a neurotoxic protein produced by Clostridium botulinum. The toxin acts directly on the neuromuscular junction to inhibit acetylcholine release resulting in muscle paralysis. Muscles controlling eye and eyelid movement, facial expression, chewing, talking, and swallowing are especially susceptible. Among these are the muscular dystrophies, a group of genetic inherited diseases, which are characterized by progressive muscle weakness with death of muscle cells. The disorder is caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene located on the X-chromosome that codes for dystrophin, a protein that connects the cell cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Defects in dystrophin result in excess Ca2+ entering muscle cells with damage to mitochondria and consequent cell death. As cells die, there is increasing muscle weakness and eventually the respiratory muscles are affected. These include polymyalgia rheumatica that occurs mainly in the elderly, and the autoimmune conditions polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Required Materials Connected Powerlab 5-lead Bio Amp cable Dry Earth Strap Four electrodes Abrasive gel Tissue Alcohol swab Dumbbells (3, 5, 8, and 10 lbs. Lightly abrade the skin where the electrodes will be placed with a small amount of abrasive gel. The electrodes should be placed 2-5 cm apart and aligned with the long axis of the arm on both the biceps and triceps. Firmly swab the skin with alcohol swabs in each area where electrodes will be placed. Abrading the skin is an essential step as it decreases the electrical resistance of the outer layer of skin and ensures good electrical contact. Check that all four electrodes and the Dry Earth Strap are properly connected to the volunteer and the Bio Amp cable before proceeding. Before you begin Have the volunteer sit in a relaxed position, elbow bent to 90°, and the palm facing upwards. The volunteer should use his or her opposite hand to grasp the wrist of the arm from which the signal is being recorded. Add the comment: "biceps contraction" and ask the volunteer to moderately contract the biceps muscle, by trying to bend the arm further and resisting this movement with the other arm. Add the comment: "triceps contraction" and ask the volunteer to moderately contract the triceps muscle by trying to straighten out the arm and resisting this movement with the other arm. Repeat steps 12, but this time make a maximal contraction of the biceps and then the triceps muscles. In the data panel there are four channels: two for the biceps and two for the triceps. The mathematical "trick" to deal with this is to square all the values, for the square of a negative value gives you a positive one. Based on the data you collected, what can you infer is happening to the muscles as weight is added? Lesson 19: Axial Skeleton Created by Aimee Williams Introduction the axial skeleton forms the vertical, central axis of the body and includes all bones of the head, neck, chest, and back and serves to protect the brain, spinal cord, heart, and lungs. The axial skeleton also serves as the attachment site for muscles that move the head, neck, and back, and for muscles that act across the shoulder and hip joints to move their corresponding limbs. Distinguish among vertebrae located in different regions of the vertebral column 3.
It passes cumflex femoral artery and perforating beneath the psoas muscle and the internal iliac branches diabete mellito purchase avapro with a visa. After birth diabetic diet 2000 cal order avapro with paypal, it ing into the psoas and quadratus lumborum becomes obliterated beyond the exit of the sumuscles diabetes type 2 blood test results cheap generic avapro canada. Arteries traversing the pelvic sacral foramina into the 29 Superior vesical arteries. It courses in the lateral wall of the pelvis and passes through 29 a Occluded part. Portion of the fetal umbilical artery which becomes oblitthe obturator foramen to supply the adductor erated postnatally and forms the medial muscles. It anastomoses with the obturator branch of the inferior epiga- 30 Medial umbilical ligament. It 17 supplies the inferior part of the urinary bladder and, in males, the prostate and seminal vesicle. It passes to the cervix within the base of the broad ligament and very tortuously ascends lateral to the uterus. Branches to 21 the cervix that anastomose with vessels on the oposite side to supply the upper part of the vagina. It runs along the ovarian ligament proper and through the mesovarium to the ovary. It anastomoses with the 22 ovarian artery and the tubal branch of the uterine artery. It runs in the mesosalpinx of the tube to the point where it anastomoses with the ovarian artery. It crosses 25 the floor of the pelvis to the rectum and supplies the retal muscles. It passes through the greater sciatic foramen [[infrapiriform]] from the pelvis and through the lesser sciatic foramen to the lateral wall of the 27 ischiorectal fossa. It passes transversely through the ischiorectal fossa and supplies both sphincters as well as the skin 28 below the anal valves. It arises at the posterior margin of the urogenital diaphragm and supplies the bulbospongiosus and ischio- 29 cavernosus muscles. It penetrates the 31 corpus spongiosum at the junction of the crura of the penis and travels as far as the glans. Besides the bulb of the penis, it also supplies the deep transversus perinei muscle and the bulbo- 33 urethral gland. It arises dorsal to the inguinal ligament and passes upward to the inner surface of the rectus abdominis. It produces the lateral umbilical fold and anastomoses with the superior epigastric artery. Branch anastomosing with the pubic branch of the obturator artery [[corona mortis]]. Branch taking a curved course posterolaterally along the iliac crest beneath the transversalis fascia. It extends from the inguinal ligament to the popliteal artery, with which it is continuous. It arises distal to the inguinal ligament and courses on the abdominal musculature toward the umbilicus. It proceeds parallel to the inguinal ligament in the direction of the anterior superior iliac spine. Usually paired arteries that supply the lower abdominal wall and the external genitalia. B Arteries 225 1 2 3 28 27 21 26 22 8 21 30 20 4 5 6 31 29 35 2 1 23 3 7a 6 7 32 33; 34 7 8 9 A Internal and external iliac arteries 26 5 B Femoral artery 10 11 12 19 18 2a 2 3 10 4 15 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 C Uterine artery 8 7 9 8 17 8 D Internal pudendal artery 21 22 23 16 14 15 11 10 9 E Internal pudendal artery from below 24 25 a a a 226 Arteries 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 a Descending genicular artery. Anastomoses with branches running in the vastus medialis, then ends in the articular network of the knee.
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